The information herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and that listing of commercial products, necessary to this guide, implies no endorsement by the authors or the Extension Services of Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming or Montana. This organism may remain in the plant debris for 2 years, so elimination of old plant parts is essential. Some of the most commonly infected solanaceous weeds include black nightshade, jimsonweed, horsenettle, and smooth groundcherry. Fungal spores are readily spread by splashing rain and irrigation water. Septoria can survive for up to 3 years in infested debris, but it can also survive on weedy hosts such as jimsonweed, horsenettle, groundcherry, and night- shade. If there are only a few plants in a garden, the progress of the blights may be slowed somewhat by removing infected leaves as they appear. Criticism of products or equipment not listed is neither implied nor intended. [1] Provided the environment is conducive for disease development, lesions usually develop within 5 days of infection. Avoid overhead irrigation if possible, and time irrigations to end before dusk and avoid prolonged periods of leaf wetness. Elmer, W. H., & Ferrandino, F. J. Septoria fungal leaf spot is most severe in regions where warm, wet, humid weather extends over several days to weeks. The pathogen is soilborne and remains in infested soils for up to ten years. The disease cycle begins when fungal spores (conidia) are deposited onto and directly penetrate leaves through natural openings. "Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato, Septoria lycopersici",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 April 2020, at 03:32. Septoria leaf spot is caused by a fungus, Septoria lycopersici. This fungus will persist not only on living vegetation but on tools and equipment such as secateurs, canes, and cages. [1] The lesions are generally 2-5mm in diameter and have a greyish center with brown margins. [4] High humidity and leaf wetness are also ideal for disease development. Fungus typically develops on the leaves of the plant, but can also occur on the calyx, stem, and petioles. Septoria leaf spot symptoms typically begin as plant canopies start to close. Early blight is characterized by a few (5 to 10) brown, circular spots up to half an inch diameter with concentric rings or ridges that form a target-like pattern surrounded by a yellow halo. Fungicides are currently the primary control method and anti-resistance strategies need to be applied to preserve and extend the useful life of these active ingredients. The disease overwinters as dormant mycelium, pycnidia, and pseudothecia on infected wheat straw debris, grass hosts, volunteers and autumn-sown crops. It also frequently infects solanaceous weeds. Life Cycle Deeply bury crop debris soon after harvest to reduce pathogen overwintering and survival. Disease cycle. Debris falls to the ground. Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato Frequency. The disease progresses from the oldest to youngest tissues and, if disease is severe, can cause leaves to turn slightly yellow, brown, and then wither. Integrated Pest Management Septoria is caused by a fungus, Septoria lycopersici, which overwinters in old tomato debris and on wild Solanaceous plants. Septoria leaf spot symptoms usually appear on lower leaves after the first fruit sets, but they may also appear on stems, petioles, the calyx, and rarely fruit. This fungus tends to begin its attack on the lower, older leaves and stems where the fruit set. Septoria lycopersici overwinters on infected tomato debris or debris of solanaceous weed hosts, such as horsenettle. High Plains Integrated Pest Management Septoria obesa is most common, but S. chrysanthemella has also been reported. This can be accomplished by burning or destroying all infected plant tissues to prevent the spread of the primary innoculum. The pathogen can be disseminated in and on equipment, plant stakes, contaminated seed, insects, and workers. What plants does it affect? Agronomic and Vegetable Crops Severe infections can damage foliage so much that fruit fails to mature or become sunscalded. Long periods of high relative humidity, temperatures of 60–80 degrees F, and leaf wetness are ideal conditions for development and spread of the pathogen. Septoria leaf spot can be a very damaging disease when temperatures are moderate and rainfall is abundant. [6] Spores spread to healthy tomato leaves by windblown water, splashing rain, irrigation, mechanical transmission, and through the activities of insects such as beetles, tomato worms, and aphids. [1], Septoria lycopersici prefers warm, wet, and humid conditions. Toggle navigation [2] Drip irrigation and mulching also help with the reduction of splashing thus decreasing further inoculum dispersal. The usual lifecycle for Septoria is 15-18 days, although it can remain in the latent phase for up to 28 days, with no visible symptoms. Septoria leaf spot may be confused with early blight, which is caused by Alternaria solani. Organic Pesticides Symptoms generally include circular or angular lesions most commonly found on the older, lower leaves of the plant.

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